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Industry 4.0: The Transformation of Production

May 16, 2023

Modern society is undergoing a significant transformation in the production of goods, known as Industry 4.0 (I4.0). This transformation is driven by the digitization of society and manufacturing, and the integration of new, modern, smart, and disruptive technologies.

Industry 4.0 refers to the intelligent networking of machines and processes using new information and communication technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, fog computing, and Artificial Intelligence (AI). These technologies have increased the speed and breadth of knowledge in the modern economy and society.

From the first industrial revolution, characterized by mechanization through water and steam power, to the mass production and assembly lines of the second industrial revolution using electricity, and the adoption of computers and automation in the third industrial revolution, Industry 4.0 builds upon these advancements. It enhances them with smart and autonomous systems that work in IoT environments, utilizing digital data analyzed by machine learning technology.

The combination of cyber-physical systems (CPS), IoT, AI, and machine learning is making Industry 4.0 possible and turning the concept of the smart factory into a reality. Smart machines, with access to more data, enable factories to become less wasteful and more efficient and productive. The true power of Industry 4.0 lies in the digital connection between network CPS, creating and sharing information.

CPS are systems that integrate constituents from the cyber and physical domains. They monitor and control physical processes through a network of actuators and sensors and can be implemented on various scales. CPS form the basis of smart machines in Industry 4.0 and use modern control systems and IoT environments.

Smart cyber-physical systems (SCPS) are the next generation of computing applications, integrating communication, computation, process control, and AI technologies in a transparent and novel way. SCPS exhibit highly cooperative behavior, self-awareness, self-adaptation, and self-optimization. They are complex systems that enable various AI techniques and technologies within IoT constraints.

SCPS have evolved beyond traditional CPS definitions and are capable of building awareness, reasoning, and adapting to their environment. They integrate hardware, software, AI, and cyberware technologies to a higher degree than any other system before. AI provides cognition to SCPS, allowing them to model, represent, learn complex interactions, and behaviors.

The implementation of artificial neural networks, specifically the multilayer perceptron artificial neural network (MLPANN), in SCPS enables intelligent and autonomous decision-making. MLPANN was chosen for its simple and easy-to-implement architecture.

In conclusion, Industry 4.0 is revolutionizing the production of goods through the integration of new technologies. CPS and SCPS are at the forefront of this transformation, enabling the development of smart machines and systems. The implementation of AI and neural networks in SCPS enhances their capabilities and paves the way for intelligent and autonomous decision-making.